Posted: November 18th, 2016
Answer questions 9-13 by filling in the blank With glycolysis, one six-carbon glucose molecule is split into two three-carbon _______ molecules, a net of two _____ and 2 NADH molecules. The 2 NADH molecules shuttle pairs of high-energy electrons to the ______________________ for ATP production. 10. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of the cell and the remaining reactions take place in the mitochondria. Figure SM.9 When oxygen is readily available, each pyruvate formed from glucose yields one ___________ , one CO2, and one NADH. Again, the NADH shuttles high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain for ______ production. 11. Figure SM.10 A series of reactions called the ___________ cycle completes the breakdown of acetyl CoA. Think of a merry-go-round at an amusement park. Acetyl CoA is the rider, and oxaloacetate is the ticket agent and hand in hand they climb aboard. Acetyl CoA’s ticket is coenzyme A. As the merry-go-round spins, two NAD+ shuttles swoop in and grab pairs of high-energy electrons as two carbons combine with oxygen and exit as carbon dioxide molecules. In mid-cycle, GTP, which is easily converted to ATP, jumps off. An FAD shuttle hops on to grab another pair of high-energy electrons. Finally, a third NAD+ shuttle departs with a final pair of high-energy electrons. And the cycle begins again. Before we go on to the last stage of extracting energy from glucose, we need to divert for a second to point out how the citric acid cycle is also an important source of building blocks for the biosynthesis of amino acids and fatty acids. 12. Figure SM.11 The final step in glucose breakdown is a sequence of linked reactions that take place in the _______________ chain, which is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This pathway produces most of the ATP available from glucose. The shuttle molecules NADH and FADH2, carry high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain, where ____ and ______ are produced. 13. When completely oxidized, each glucose molecule yields ________, ________, and _________.
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