Which is a fat-soluble vitamin?

Page 1 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ Instructions: Please read each question carefully and circle the best answer for each question. Each question only has 1 correct answer. 1. Which nutrient contains the most calories per gram? A. B. C. D. 2. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are considered A. B. C. D. 3. D. a change that reflects the participants’ expectations is observed the subject knows that he/she is receiving two treatments during the experiment neither the subjects nor the investigators know which study group is receiving the placebo the placebo has two possible effects on the study group A chemical whose absence from the diet for a long time results in specific changes in health is A. B. C. D. 8. placebo clinical trial case control epidemiological A research study is said to be double-blind if A. B. C. 7. calcium Vitamin B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Which type of research study compares disease rates among population groups, and attempts to identify related conditions or behaviors? A. B. C. D. 6. 84 168 189 220 Which is a fat-soluble vitamin? A. B. C. D. 5. micronutrients macronutrients antioxidants free radicals How many kilocalories are in 21 grams of fat? A. B. C. D. 4. vitamins lipids carbohydrates protein a nutrient water an enzyme an antioxidant Essential nutrients A. B. C. D. are made by the body can only be supplied adequately with dietary supplements must be obtained through diet consist of over 75 different types of nutrients Page 2 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ 9. How many kilocalories are in a meal that contains 20 grams of fat, 15 grams of protein, and 80 grams of carbohydrate? A. B. C. D. 545 560 595 900 10. Exchange Lists were originally developed to help people with A. B. C. D. high blood pressure obesity diabetes anorexia 11. The _____ are the maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed. A. B. C. D. Tolerable Upper Intake Level(s) The Recommended Daily Allowance Adequate Intake Estimated Average Requirements 12. What components of a food label can help consumers compare the amounts of nutrients in a food to the amount of that nutrient that is recommended for consumption each day? A. B. C. D. Upper Tolerable Limits Ingredient List Daily Values Recommended Dietary Allowance 13. Which nutrient is not required to be posted on the Nutrition Facts panel? A. B. C. D. carbohydrates fats water vitamins 14. What best describes a short-lived, highly reactive chemical that can have detrimental effects on cells? A. B. C. D. free radical functional food direct additive indirect additive 15. Compounds that help plants resist the attacks of bacteria and fungi, the ravages of free radicals, and increased levels of ultraviolet light from the sun are A. B. C. D. free radicals phytochemicals indirect additives alternative medicine 16. The __________________ states that food additives cannot be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals. A. B. C. D. Federal Commissions Act Food and Drugs Clause Delaney Clause Prior Sanctioned Substance Act 17. The breaking apart of foods into smaller and smaller units is called Page 3 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ A. B. C. D. digestion absorption metabolism molecular function 18. The passage of nutrients and other substances into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, and then into the bloodstream is called A. B. C. D. digestion absorption metabolism molecular function 19. Which of the following is not a function of the GI tract? A. B. C. D. transport of ingested food secretion of digestive enzymes movement of undigested material exchange of oxygen within the blood vessels 20. The primary function of the _______________ is to store and concentrate bile from the liver. A. B. C. D. kidneys small intestine gallbladder pancreas 21. __________________ kills many disease-causing bacteria that may have been ingested. A. B. C. D. pepsin bile gastrin hydrochloric acid 22. Which of the following is not one of the three parts of the small intestine? A. B. C. D. duodenum cecum jejunum ileum 23. Which of the following is not a monosaccharide? A. B. C. D. glucose fructose galactose sucrose 24. Virtually the only fuel used by they brain, except during prolonged starvation, when these supplies are too low is A. B. C. D. glucose fructose galactose sucrose 25. The primary sugar in milk and dairy products is A. B. C. lactose fructose sucrose Page 4 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ D. maltose 26. Two glucose molecules joined together form A. B. C. D. maltose dextrose lactose sucrose 27. Which vitamin plays a primary role in vision and the development of body cells? A. B. C. D. vitamin A vitamin B6 vitamin C vitamin D 28. Which of the following diseases is associated with a vitamin D deficiency? A. B. C. D. scurvy beriberi rickets pellagra 29. Which vitamin is primarily responsible for blood clotting? A. B. C. D. vitamin A vitamin C vitamin E vitamin K 30. Newborns are susceptible to ____ deficiency because they have a lack of intestinal bacteria, and therefore, are given an injection of this vitamin at birth. A. B. C. D. vitamin K vitamin D vitamin A vitamin E 31. A common deficiency associated with thiamin is A. B. C. D. scurvy beriberi rickets pellagra 32. Which vitamin is a component of acetyl-CoA? A. B. C. D. thiamin vitamin C folate pantothenic acid 33. Which is not considered a lipid? A. B. C. D. sterols phospholipids triglycerides monosaccharides 34. Trans fatty acids are associated with A. increased blood cholesterol levels Page 5 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ B. C. D. decreased blood cholesterol levels increased blood carbon levels decreased blood carbon levels 35. Which of the following enzymes are involved in lipid digestion? A. B. C. D. pancreatic lipase, glycerol, fatty acids, lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase lingual lipase, pancreatic lipase, and glycerol gastric lipase, pancreatic lipase, and fatty acids lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase 36. Elevated levels of ____ in the blood increase the risk of artery and heart diseases. A. B. C. D. low density lipoproteins- LDL intermediate density lipoproteins- IDL very –low density lipoproteins- VLDL high density lipoproteins- HDL 37. Which is not a risk factor for heart disease? A. B. C. D. high blood pressure high blood cholesterol smoking high fiber intake 38. Just as glucose is the basic building block of carbohydrate, ___ are the basic building blocks of protein. A. B. C. D. lipids amino acids enzymes collagen 39. Proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being used up or destroyed in the process are called A. B. C. D. amino acids enzymes oxidative cells antibodies 40. Individuals with _______________ disease cannot properly digest gluten found in wheat, rye, and oats. A. B. C. D. kwashiorkor celiac marasmus colic 41. Excess dietary protein can cause A. B. C. D. loss of vitamin C kwashiorkor loss of calcium marasmus 42. Obesity is a risk factor for which of the following chronic diseases? A. B. C. D. heart disease diabetes cancer all of the above 43. Which of the following is not a function of water? Page 6 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ A. B. C. D. carries food through the digestive system transports nutrients to cells and tissues serves as a shock absorber and cleaning agent provides caloric energy in the body 44. The most sodium in a typical American diet comes from A. B. C. D. table salt sauces and condiments processed foods smoked meat and cheeses 45. Over 99% of calcium in the body is found within the A. B. C. D. liver and spleen muscles and skin bones and teeth stomach and small intestine 46. Which mineral is responsible for making muscles contract or relax? A. B. C. D. boron magnesium sodium calcium 47. Which mineral participates with over 300 types of enzyme-driven reactions, including those in DNA and protein synthesis, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and ATP production? A. B. C. D. calcium boron magnesium sodium 48. Which mineral is known for transporting oxygen in blood? A. B. C. D. iron zinc copper calcium 49. Which of the following energy systems is aerobic? A. B. C. D. ATP-CP lactic acid energy system oxygen energy system both ATP-CP and oxygen system 50. The oxygen-energy system can extract energy from which of the following source(s)? A. B. C. D. fat protein glucose both fat and glucose 51. Which type of muscle fibers can maintain low-intensity muscular activities for prolonged periods of time? A. B. C. D. fast twitch medium twitch slow twitch anaerobic twitch Page 7 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ 52. Pre-exercise meals should consist primarily of A. B. C. D. carbohydrate fat protein vitamins 53. A natural stimulant that is thought to affect athletic performance through facilitating signals between the nervous system and the muscles as well as decreasing an athlete’s perceived effort during exercise is A. B. C. D. ATP caffeine chromium ginseng 54. Which supplement has been used to promote weight loss, and to improve athletic performance? A. B. C. D. pyruvate creatine carnitine chromium 55. During a marathon, approximately 98% of your muscles’ needs are met by the A. B. C. D. ATP-CP energy system oxygen-energy system lactic acid energy system mitochondria energy system 56. Which vitamin is crucial for reducing the possibility of spina bifida and other neural tube defects during pregnancy? A. B. C. D. biotin folic acid niacin riboflavin 57. High levels of vitamin _______________may be teratogenic, causing birth defects. A. B. C. D. A B12 C D 58. For women of normal weight, the recommended weight gain during pregnancy is A. B. C. D. 35–40 pounds 30–35 pounds 25–35 pounds 15–30 pounds 59. What is the thick, yellow fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and in the first days after delivery that provides immune support to the baby? A. B. C. D. let-down reflex transitional milk colostrum prolactin 60. By the first birthday, an infant typically __________ his or her birth weight. Page 8 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ A. B. C. D. doubles triples quadruples maintains 61. A typical infant requires about _________ kilocalories per kilogram of body weight. A. B. C. D. 50 100 200 250 62. Which deficiency will most likely impair a child’s growth, mood, attention span, focus, and ability to learn? A. B. C. D. iron sodium vitamin C vitamin A 63. Which vitamin deficiency can possibly lead to permanent blindness? A. B. C. D. vitamin A vitamin B6 vitamin C vitamin D 64. Infants and toddlers younger than 2 years of age need _________ in their diets for growth, organ protection, and central nervous system development. A. B. C. D. carbohydrate fat protein vitamins 65. Which factor is not involved in the development of obesity in childhood? A. B. C. D. genetics behavior age activity level 66. At least 20 to 30 minutes of sunlight exposure 3 times per week should provide enough vitamin _____. A. B. C. D. A C D K 67. Energy needs, in total kilocalories per day, are greater during _____________ than any other time of life. A. B. C. D. adulthood adolescence childhood infancy 68. Maintaining adequate calcium intake reduces the rate of A. B. C. D. vitamin A synthesis age-related bone loss age-related vision loss hypervitaminosis Page 9 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ 69. Approximately ______________ people die in the United States each year from foodborne illnesses. A. B. C. D. 500 5,000 50,000 500,000 70. Which is not considered a common food allergen? A. B. C. D. milk peanut soy chicken 71. Which is added to foods to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life? A. B. C. D. pasteurization preservative irradiation microorganism 72. True or false? Vitamin D is needed for calcium absorption, and should be considered for the prevention of osteoporosis. 73. True or false? Blood calcium levels must be kept constant at all costs, even at the expense of bone strength. 74. True or false? The gallbladder releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the upper part of the small intestine. 75. True or false? Intrinsic factor is a substance necessary for the absorption of vitamin B 12. 76. True or false? The majority of digestion occurs in the large intestine. 77. True or false? Malnutrition increases the probability of infection, and infection makes the body expend more energy and nutrients. 78. True or false? Macronutrients supply energy to power muscle contractions and cellular functions. 79. True or false? High HDL levels indicate a healthier cholesterol value than a high LDL level. 80. True or false? A process called hydrogenation creates most trans fatty acids. 81. True or false? People with higher amounts of lean body mass typically have a higher resting metabolic rate. 82. True or false? With weight loss, the number of fat cells declines. 83. True or false? Excess abdominal/visceral fat may increase the risk for certain diseases. 84. True or false? Obesity is defined as a BMI equal to or greater than 30, or a body weight that exceeds 20% above a recommended weight range in a height-weight table. 85. True or false? Developing a lifestyle for successful weight management during early adulthood typically leads to healthier behavior patterns throughout life. 86. True or false? A healthy liver can store up to a year’s supply of vitamin A. 87. True or false? Some obese children already deal with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity, such as lipid abnormalities and hypertension. 88. True or false? The FDA must approve a new food additive before it can be put on the market. 89. True or false? Phytochemicals help neutralize free radicals. Page 10 Nutrition 100 Final Name _______Kimberly Hargrave__________________________ 90. True or false? Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and occurs when the cells do not produce enough insulin or cells ignore the insulin. 91. True or false? Both glucagon and insulin are hormones produced by the pancreas. 92. True or false? When the diet lacks protein, the body breaks down tissue such as muscle, and uses it as a protein source. 93. True or false? Protein hormones such as insulin play a key role in regulating the amount of glucose in the blood. 94. True or false? Excess protein consumption may cause dehydration and strain kidney function. 95. True or false? The FDA and EPA recommend that pregnant women, lactating women, and young children should avoid eating swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury. 96. True or false? To ensure adequate milk production and to avoid nutrient deficiencies, a nursing mother should consume at least 1,800 kilocalories per day. 97. True or false? A benefit of breast-feeding to the mother is increased uterine contractions, which help the uterus return to its normal size. Answer the following short essay question with the information that you have learned from class and your textbook. The question MUST be answered in your own words and not plagiarized. 98-100 What are phytochemicals, and how do they benefit plants and humans? What role do they play in our diet? Give 1 specific example of a phytonutrient and where it can be found?

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