Posted: January 16th, 2017
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share certain properties, which include: methods of reproduction, the presence of RNA and DNA, cellular metabolism, plasma membranes, and response to external and internal stimuli. However, they are also different in many ways. Prokaryotic cells have just one chromosome, a cell wall, a nucleoid area, and have an asexual method of reproduction. Eukaryotic cells have: multiple chromosomes, some have a cell wall while others do not, a nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, and have both asexual and sexual methods of reproduction.
Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer, and contain acidic polysaccharides, which aid in cell wall maintenance. The space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall, or the periplasmic space, can be minimal. Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, which also has an outer membrane that provides a cover that is anchored to the peptidoglycan layer. The periplasmic space can take up to 40% of the entire cell volume and houses biochemical pathways for nutrient acquisition
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