Posted: April 20th, 2017

Which characteristic(s) of urine help it to bar pathogens from the urinary tract? (1pts) mucous production a high pH ammonia concentrations a low pH 25) Which chemical released by white blood cells causes capillaries to leak? (

1) Any organism that causes disease is classified as a(n) (1pts) pathogen. mechanical vector. antigen. biological vector. 2) Immunity that develops over time due to exposure to various antigens is termed (1pts) adaptive immunity. innate immunity. coordinated immunity learned immunity. 3) The core of the immune system is made up of (1pts) intact mucus membranes. intact skin. red blood cells. white blood cells. 4) The first barrier to invasion is (1pts) antibody production. intact skin and body cavity linings. direct attack by white blood cells. development of memory cells. 5) All but which of the following can be called a pathogen? (1pts) fungus fly virus bacterium 6) The production site for white blood cells is the (1pts) spleen bone marrow. tonsils liver 7) Lymph nodes enlarge during an infection because (1pts) they become infected. lymphocytes destroy invaders inside of them. they become clogged due to infections in the blood. the body produces double the amount of lymph. 8) T cells multiply and become specialized in the (1pts) spleen. thymus. thyroid. bone marrow. 9) Which chemical released by white blood cells causes arterioles to dilate? (1pts) complement histamine cytokines interferons 10) Fever develops when ____ stimulate the brain to release prostaglandins. (1pts) histamines complement interferons cytokines 11) Skin is a component of which type of immunity? (1pts) Adaptive Innate 12) Cells produced by dividing B or T cells may be set aside for future responses to threat. These cells ‘remember’ the pathogen and are called (1pts) phagocytes. fibroblasts. effector cells. memory cells. 13) Which is the first antibody secreted during immune responses and the first one produced by newborns? (1pts) IgD IgM IgA IgG 14) Which antibody is involved in allergic reaction? (1pts) IgD IgM IgA IgE 15) Natural Killer cells are (1pts) neutrophils present outside of the lymphatic system only. macrophages detect and kill virus-infected body cells. 16) Plasma cells come from (1pts) T cells. macrophages. dendritic cells. B cells. 17) How many different ‘types’ of Antibodies are there in the human body? (1pts) 2 5 1 4 18) The purpose of a booster shot is to (1pts) counteract specific antigens in the system. elicit a secondary response to an antigen. elicit a primary response to an antigen. re-establish the formation of antibodies. 19) Passive immunization (1pts) is used to prevent a person from becoming infected. causes antibody formation. is the same thing as immunotherapy. is the administration of already formed antibodies from another source. 20) What is the name given to the chemicals which disrupt viral replication? (1pts) interferons lymphokines monoclonal antibodies vaccine 21) Which of the following act as “filters” in the lymph system? (1pts) macrophages lymph nodes complements immunoglobulins 22) The largest lymphoid organ is the (1pts) liver thymus tonsil spleen 23) The lymph vascular system begins at (1pts) the arterioles. the heart. the capillaries. the arteries. 24) Which characteristic(s) of urine help it to bar pathogens from the urinary tract? (1pts) mucous production a high pH ammonia concentrations a low pH 25) Which chemical released by white blood cells causes capillaries to leak? (1pts) complement interferons histamine cytokines 26) Which of the following would NOT be an action of the complement system? (1pts) marking of pathogens for destruction by macrophages attraction of phagocytes to the scene of pathogen invasion trapping of pathogens in tangled protein threads lysis of a pathogen’s membrane 27) The markers that identify an individual’s cells are referred to as Major Histocompatibility complexes, what are the letters that represent this complex? (1pts) RSW. ADS. HTC. MHC. 28) Which cells make you immune to a disease that you were previously exposed to? (1pts) fibroblasts. phagocytes. effector cells. memory cells. 29) Antigen-presenting cells include (1pts) monocytes, lymphocytes, and basophils. neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. lymphocytes, basophils, and neutrophils 30) What stimulates activation of B and T cells? (1pts) lysozyme release cell recognition of an antigen production of complement histamine production

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