What is the chief protein in human breast milk? Casein Lactose Albumin Alpha-lactalbumin Lactoferrin 2. What is the most realistic advice for reducing lead exposure from the tap water used to prepare infant formula? Because the lead in hot water pipes settles out overnight, draw the water from this source first. Whenever possible, boil the water to vaporize the lead and thus decrease the amount remaining in the water. Because the first water drawn from the tap each day is highest in lead, let the water run a few minutes before using it. To inhibit lead absorption, add a small amount of citrus juice to the water to provide citric acid to complex with the lead. Filtering the water through a clean coffee filter will typically remove the majority of lead contamination. 3. Infants fed honey or corn syrup are at increased risk for protein malnutrition. botulism. osteopenia. type 1 diabetes. lead poisoning. 4. Approximately how many kcal per day does an average 6 year old need to obtain? 400 800 1600 2400 3200 5. Which of the following was a finding of the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study? Most toddlers but not infants consumed insufficient intakes of sodium. The most popular food among these population groups was baked potatoes. Most infants but not toddlers demonstrated food intake patterns consistent with MyPlate recommendations. About one-fourth of the infants and toddlers failed to consume even one serving of fruits or vegetables daily. Less than 10% of young preschoolers consumed nutrient-poor, energy-dense beverages, desserts, and snack foods each day. 6. Which of the following is a characteristic of a food allergy? It always elicits symptoms in the person. It always involves the production of antibodies. It always shows up immediately after exposure to the allergic food. It is elicited from very small, simple molecules as well as large, complex molecules. It is less severe than an intolerance. 7. Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats? Restriction of specific nutrients exerted antiaging effects Energy-restricted diets led to life extension in 90% of the rats Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature Restriction of food intake only after rats reached maturity, but not before, resulted in extension of the life span Although early research was encouraging, more recent research has found that the effects are much smaller than hoped 8. Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people? They vary according to individual histories. They remain the same as in young adult life. They increase; therefore, supplementation is required. They decrease for vitamins and minerals due to changes in body composition. They rarely change from middle-age onward. 9. Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism? They may not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth. They have a higher total body water content compared with younger adults. They show increased frequency of urination, which results in higher requirements. They frequently show symptoms of overhydration such as mental lapses and disorientation. Overhydration increases risk of pressure ulcers and urinary tract infections. 10. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly? Most elderly receive near-RDA amounts of the vitamin. Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form. The RDA for vitamin D in the elderly is lower due to less excretion by the kidneys. Most elderly rely primarily on self-synthesis of the vitamin due to their greater time spent outdoors. Elderly individuals need at least 40 micrograms per day. 11. Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that these vegetables significantly reduce absorption of the drug. these vegetables significantly increase absorption of the drug. variable intake of green leafy vegetables will affect activity of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug. he is confused – green leafy vegetable intake is unrelated to anticoagulant action. 12. Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition? One Two Four Five eight 13. The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot that broke away from arterial plaque is termed an anginism. an embolism. circulatory hypoxia. a de-plaquing event. plaque rupture. 14. What should be the next course of action for a person who was unsuccessful in lowering LDL or blood pressure by lifestyle changes? Obtain prescription medications. Consider coronary bypass surgery. Obtain regular nutrition counseling. Consider gastric surgery to reduce body weight. Try again with a more stringent diet and exercise program. 15. Among the following lifestyle changes, which is least effective at reducing blood pressure? Adopting the DASH eating plan Limiting daily alcohol intake to 1-2 drinks Reducing body weight to achieve a BMI of less than 25 Performing physical exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week Restricting sodium to less than 2500 mg per day 16. Which of the following is a leading cause of both blindness and kidney failure? Cancer Diabetes HIV/AIDS Atherosclerosis Stroke 17. Clostridium botulinum poisoning is a hazard associated with nitrosamines. rotting vegetables. unpasteurized milk. improperly canned vegetables. unwashed fruits. 18. Which of the following foods are associated with illness from Salmonella? Raw vegetables Pickled vegetables Home-canned vegetables Raw meats, poultry, and eggs Raw fruits 19. A few years ago a foodborne illness outbreak was reported by a national restaurant chain. After dozens of people were infected, authorities determined that employees of the restaurant had used the same knife to cut raw meat products as they did for produce items such as lettuce. Which of the following terms most likely describes the employees’ neglect that led to the patrons of the restaurant becoming ill? Contamination Cross-contamination Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Inappropriate monitoring of food temperatures Improper cooking procedures 20. What nutrients in foods are most vulnerable to losses during food handling and preparation? Trace minerals Fat-soluble vitamins Polyunsaturated fats Water-soluble vitamins Simple carbohydrates 21. Which of the following is a characteristic of antibiotic use in livestock? Development of antibiotic-resistant organisms is very rare. Proper cooking of the meat destroys any traces of antibiotics. Farmers use more than 5 times more antibiotic in livestock than physicians use in people. Because the antibiotics have a short half-life, the FDA permits slaughter of the animals at any time. There is no evidence of harm to the environment or human health from the use of antibiotics in livestock. 22. What is the largest federal food assistance program in the United States? WIC EAT National Food Resource Program Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Senior Farmer’s Market Program 23. You are reading a case study from a researcher at World University. The researcher has traveled to the largest city in India and is reporting on an illness present in a 15-month-old boy. The researcher describes the child as extremely thin and bony, with wrinkled skin and enlarged fatty liver. For the past year, this child has subsisted almost entirely on diluted cereal drink. Your first thought is that most of these observations are characteristic of marasmus, but then you realize that ____ is more consistent with kawashikor. wrinkled skin food intake pattern enlarged fatty liver extremely thin bony appearance 24. At the end of your class presentation on “Acute Malnutrition,” a student asks you to clarify how the rapid onset of malnutrition occurs in kwashiorkor. How should you respond? It is the result of an inborn error of metabolism. It is usually synchronized with the drought season in each respective country. It is typically seen in patients who are 2-5 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their dislike for breast milk as they grow older. It is typically seen in patients after weaning due to the sudden change in diet arising from their being weaned from breast milk after the birth of a sibling. It occurs when the family’s finances are no longer able to afford food for all family members. 25. How much more grain is consumed by livestock than by people? Twice as much Three times as much Five times as much Ten times as much Twenty times as much
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